Avtor/Urednik     Pangršič, T; Potokar, M; Stenovec, M; Kreft, M; Fabbretti, E; Nistri, A; Pryazhnikov, E; Khiroug, L; Giniatullin, R; Zorec, R
Naslov     Exocytotic release of ATP from cultured astrocytes
Tip     članek
Vir     J Biol Chem
Vol. in št.     Letnik 282, št. 39
Leto izdaje     2007
Obseg     str. 28749-58
ISSN     0021-9258
Jezik     eng
Abstrakt     Astrocytes appear to communicate with each other as well as with neurons via ATP. However, the mechanisms of ATP release are controversial. To explore whether stimuli that increase [Ca(2+)](i) also trigger vesicular ATP release from astrocytes, we labeled ATP-containing vesicles with the fluorescent dye quinacrine, which exhibited a significant co-localization with atrial natriuretic peptide. The confocal microscopy study revealed that quinacrine-loaded vesicles displayed mainly non-directional spontaneous mobility with relatively short track lengths and small maximal displacements, whereas 4% of vesicles exhibited directional mobility. After ionomycin stimulation only non-directional vesicle mobility could be observed, indicating that an increase in [Ca(2+)](i) attenuated vesicle mobility. Total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) imaging in combination with epifluorescence showed that a high percentage of fluorescently labeled vesicles underwent fusion with the plasma membrane after stimulation with glutamate or ionomycin and that this event was Ca(2+)-dependent. This was confirmed by patch-clamp studies on HEK-293T cells transfected with P2X(3) receptor, used as sniffers for ATP release from astrocytes. Glutamate stimulation of astrocytes was followed by an increase in the incidence of small transient inward currents in sniffers, reminiscent of postsynaptic quantal events observed at synapses. Their incidence was highly dependent on extracellular Ca(2+). Collectively, these findings indicate that glutamate-stimulated ATP release from astrocytes was most likely exocytotic and that after stimulation the fraction of quinacrine-loaded vesicles, spontaneously exhibiting directional mobility, disappeared.
Deskriptorji     EXOCYTOSIS
ASTROCYTES
ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE
ATRIAL NATRIURETIC FACTOR
CALCIUM
GLUTAMATES
CELLS, CULTURED
QUINACRINE
MICROSCOPY, CONFOCAL
TRANSFECTION
PATCH-CLAMP TECHNIQUES
RATS, WISTAR