Author/Editor     Eržen, I; Zaletel-Kragelj, L
Title     Cadmium concentrations in blood related to smoking habits in a group of males aged between 18 and 26 years
Type     članek
Source     Trace Elem Electrolytes
Vol. and No.     Letnik 23, št. 1
Publication year     2006
Volume     str. 60-5
ISSN     0946-2104
Language     eng
Abstract     Abstract. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine cadmium concentrations in blood (Cd-B) in young Slovenian males occupationally unexposed to cadmium, as well as to study the relation between cadmium in blood and smoking habits. Methods and subjects: Included in the study were 708 young healthy males, aged 18-27 years. The random sample was drawn from the population of Slovene recruits prior to military service. Blood samples of 2 ml maximum were taken from the cubital vein and analyzed for cadmium levels by means of clectrothermal atomic absorption spectroscopy. Each subject filled in a questionnaire related to their workplace, leisure activities, food/alcohol consumption and smoking habits. Results: The median Cd-B was: in 384 non-smokers 0.50 mig/1 (range: 0.15 - 24.00 mig/I), in 217 light to moderate smokers (maximum 20 cigarettes/day) 1.00 mig/1 (range: 0.15 - 8.50 mig/1), and in 107 heavy smokers (more than 21 cigarettes/day) 1.50 mig/1(range: 0.15 -14.00 mig/1). The differences were statistically highly significant (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The study confirms the significant contribution of cigarette smoking to non-dietary cadmium intake. It can be clearly observed that, besides the dietary intake, cigarette smoking is the most important source of cadmium in unpolluted environment. The contribution of smoking to total cadmium intake seems to be even greater than that of dietary intake. The information obtained provides a foundation for assessing the importance of smoking habits as a source of exposure to this nephrotoxic element.
Descriptors     CADMIUM
SMOKING
OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE
MILITARY PERSONNEL
SPECTROPHOTOMETRY, ATOMIC ABSORPTION
ADULT