Author/Editor     Tomazin, I
Title     Zmrzline in njihova oskrba na terenu
Translated title     Frostbite: prehospital care
Type     članek
Source     Zdrav Vestn
Vol. and No.     Letnik 63, št. 9
Publication year     1994
Volume     str. 517-20
ISSN     1318-0347
Language     slo
Abstract     Background. Frostbite is a localised cold injury characterized by freezing with ice crystal formation. The tissue injury is produced in two ways: 1. Freezing of the tissues. 2. Cold induced obstruction of the blood supply to the tissues. Basic pathophysiologic consequence which is most harmful for the tissues and is greatest during rewarming, is progressive vascular thrombosis. The risk factors, the epidemiology, the classification according to severity of tissue injury the clinical features, the sequelae and the prognosis of frostbite are described. Conclusions. Frostbite's sequelae are dependent mostly on proper first aid and initial medical treatment. The main principles of the treatment is presented with special attention on measures at the site of the injury and the treatment in the general practice. The most important initial measure is rapid rewarming with adequate analagesia. The frostbite has to be treated like an open wound. Drug therapy may include the use of antibiotics non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent, aspirin, pentoxiphyllin, heparin, alpha adrenergic blocking agents. Other measures are active exercise of injured parts during warm bath in mild antiseptic, infusion of low molecular weight dextran, tetanus prophylaxis and at high altitude also oxygen. In general practice there we can cure the Ist and the IInd degree frostbite, but because of difficult early estimation of severity it is better to refer the indistinct cases to the hospital. Most cold injuries are preventable with proper protection against cold.
Descriptors     FROSTBITE
FIRST AID
AMBULATORY CARE