Author/Editor     Wang, Ye; Lim, Lynette; Madilao, Lina; Lah, Ljerka; Bohlmann, Joerg; Breuil, Colette
Title     Gene Discovery for Enzymes Involved in Limonene Modification or Utilization by the Mountain Pine Beetle-Associated Pathogen Grosmannia clavigera
Type     članek
Publication year     2014
ISSN     Applied and environmental microbiology Med
Language     eng
Abstract     To successfully colonize and eventually kill pine trees, Grosmannia clavigera (Gs cryptic species), the main fungal pathogen associated with the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), has developed multiple mechanisms to overcome host tree chemical defenses, of which terpenoids are a major component. In addition to a monoterpene efflux system mediated by a recently discovered ABC transporter, Gs has genes that are highly induced by monoterpenes and that encode enzymes that modify or utilize monoterpenes [especially (+)-limonene]. We showed that pine-inhabiting Ophiostomale fungi are tolerant to monoterpenes, but only a few, including Gs, are known to utilize monoterpenes as a carbon source. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed that Gs can modify (+)-limonene through various oxygenation pathways, producing carvone, p-mentha-2,8-dienol, perillyl alcohol, and isopiperitenol. It can also degrade (+)-limonene through the C-1-oxygenated pathway, producing limonene-1,2-diol as the most abundant intermediate. Transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) data indicated that Gs may utilize limonene 1,2-diol through beta-oxidation and then valine and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) metabolic pathways. The data also suggested that at least two gene clusters, located in genome contigs 108 and 161, were highly induced by monoterpenes and may be involved in monoterpene degradation processes. Further, gene knockouts indicated that limonene degradation required two distinct Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases (BVMOs), an epoxide hydrolase and an enoyl coenzyme A (enoyl-CoA) hydratase. Our work provides information on enzyme-mediated limonene utilization or modification and a more comprehensive understanding of the interaction between an economically important fungal pathogen and its host's defense chemicals.
Keywords     enzymes
gene clusters
monoterpenes
encimi
gruče genov
monoterpeni