Author/Editor     Bolha, Luka; Ravnik-Glavač, Metka; Glavač, Damjan
Title     Circular RNAs
Type     članek
Vol. and No.     , št. Vol. 2017
Publication year     2017
Volume     str. 1-19
ISSN     International journal of genomics Med
Language     eng
Abstract     Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a class of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) that form covalently closed continuous loop structures, lacking the terminal 5' and 3' ends. CircRNAs are generated in the process of back-splicing and can originate from different genomic regions. Their unique circular structure makes circRNAs more stable than linear RNAs. In addition, they also display insensitivity to ribonuclease activity. Generally, circRNAs function as microRNA (miRNA) sponges and have a regulatory role in transcription and translation. They may be also translated in a cap-independent manner in vivo, to generate specific proteins. In the last decade, next-generation sequencing techniques, especially RNA-seq, have revealed great abundance and also dysregulation of many circRNAs in various diseases, suggesting their involvement in disease development and progression. Regarding their high stability and relatively specific differential expression patterns in tissues and extracellular environment (e.g., body fluids), they are regarded as promising novel biomarkers in cancer. Therefore, we focus this review on describing circRNA biogenesis, function, and involvement in human cancer development and address the potential of circRNAs to be effectively used as novel cancer diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers.
Keywords     biogeneza
označevalci raka
krožna RNA
biogenesis
cancer biomarkers
circular RNAs