Author/Editor     Clayton, Richard N; Pfeifer, Marija; Atkinson, A Brew; Belchetz, Paul; Wass, John AH; Kyrodimou, Effie; Vanderpump, Mark; Simpson, David; Bicknell, John; Farrell, William E
Title     Different patterns of allelic loss (loss of heterozygosity) in recurrent human pituitary tumors provide evidence for multiclonal origins
Type     članek
Source     Clin Cancer Res
Vol. and No.     Letnik 6
Publication year     2000
Volume     str. 3973-82
Language     eng
Abstract     Sporadic human pituitary tumors are benign adenomas of monoclonal origin. This implies that they arise from de novo somatic mutation(s) within a single pituitary cell. The availability of original and recurrent/regrown tumors from the same patient allowed testing of the prediction that recurrent/regrown tumors have identical genetic abnormalities as the original tumor sample. We used PCR amplification, from archival slide-extracted DNA, to allelotype microsatellite polymorphisms as an indication of clonality and confirmed this by X chromosome inactivation analysis in samples from women. Tumors from 33 of 49 (67%) patients with two or more specimens showed loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of at least one marker in at least one of their samples. Two patterns of LOH were observed. In pattern A in 14 of 33 (42%) of patients, the LOH pattern of the first tumor was preserved in the second recurrent sample, with some recurrent tumors also showing additional LOH. In these patients, the original and second tumors are presumed to arise from the same original clone with or without progressive accumulation of LOH. In pattern B (19 of 33 (58%) patients), LOH seen in the first tumor was not preserved in the second or subsequent tumors, as evidenced by retention of heterozygosity compared with the first tumor. The simplest explanation is that the second tumor, although still monoclonal, arises from another independently abnormal clone. This was confirmed by X chromosome inactivation analysis in all 11 women where this was informative. These results show that initial and recurrent tumors, of a benign tumor type, are frequently derived from separate independent clones. This suggests that either: (a) more than one abnormal clone is present from the outset though only one dominates; or (b) several clones arise independently at different times. (Abstract truncated at 2000 characters).